Religious conservatives in Texas were stunned in 2007 when Republican Rick Perry became the first governor in the country to order young girls to get a vaccine against a sexually transmitted virus that can cause cervical cancer.

The vaccine would encourage promiscuity, according to many conservatives, who had long supported Perry’s views against abortion and same-sex marriage.

An examination of state vaccination requirements for adolescents finds that the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is currently required in only two states, many fewer than another vaccine associated with sexual transmission (hepatitis B) and another primarily recommended for adolescents (meningococcal conjugate), according to a study in the July 14 issue of JAMA. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that 38 percent of adolescent girls and 14 percent of adolescent boys had completed the 3-dose series in 2013. Vaccination requirements were more common for hepatitis B vaccine (47 states and D. C.), and meningococcal conjugate vaccine (29 states and D. The recent approval and recommendation of a 9-valent HPV vaccine offers a new opportunity to consider all strategies shown to promote high vaccination rates, including school requirements," the authors write.

Practices suggested in the literature to reduce non-medical exemptions include: In summary, vaccination requirements that reach more children through a broad range of facilities, that have more requirements for receiving an exemption, that require parental documentation of exemption requests, and that are implemented with strong enforcement and monitoring may help promote higher rates of vaccination coverage, and in turn, lower rates of VPDs.

Ongoing provider outreach and public education about vaccines and the diseases they prevent may also lead to such an increase.

The recognition that invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the end result of some genital tract human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and the development of prophylactic vaccines to prevent these infections are major recent achievements of public health medicine.

The quadrivalent Gardasil HPV vaccine from Merck & Co., Inc., was licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2006 and was subsequently recommended by the Advisory Council on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for vaccination of adolescent girls and young women.

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By activating your account, you will create a login and password. C.) for any childhood, adolescent, or college-aged population. In a comparison of requirements eight years after publication of a routine Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendation, hepatitis B vaccine was required in 36 states and D. C., meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 21 states and D. The novelty of the 3-dose HPV vaccine series in the adolescent schedule may present additional challenges. The researchers identified the earliest date that a requirement, if applicable, took effect for each vaccine in every state and the District of Columbia (D. A third requirement will take effect in Rhode Island in August 2015. "Why HPV vaccine requirements have not been more widely implemented is unclear, but may reflect reluctance among states to revisit the contentious political climate surrounding requirement proposals in 2006-2007. Vaccines studied were those used by the CDC to evaluate adolescent vaccination that were added to the recommended schedule since 1990 and protected against new disease targets: hepatitis B, varicella, meningococcal conjugate, and HPV. required HPV vaccination, and each includes broad, vaccine-specific exemption procedures. J., examined the presence and timing of state requirements for vaccines with particular relevance to adolescent health and compared those findings to the implementation of HPV vaccines.Paul Offit, chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases and the director of the Vaccine Education Center at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia: "I think it shouldn’t have to be [mandated].